Ekaterina Svanidze – Stalin’s first wife

Alexander Svanidze, an old school friend of Stalin’s and a fellow revolutionary, introduced the 28-year-old Joseph Stalin to his sister, Ekaterina Svanidze. Nicknamed Kato, Ekaterina was born in Georgia on 2 April 1885. Respecting her devoutness, Stalin put aside his atheism and the couple were married in an Orthodox church in Tiflis (now Tbilisi), capital of Georgia, in 1906.

Together they had a son, Yakov, born 18 March 1907, but with Stalin away so much, inciting unrest, his wife and son saw little of their wandering revolutionary. Ekaterina Svanidze was struck by typhus and died, possibly in Stalin’s arms, on 5 December 1907. She was twenty-two.

‘My last warm feelings for humanity’

Her death greatly affected Stalin and he later claimed that, beside his mother, also called Ekaterina, Kato was the only women he had loved. At her funeral, which, again, Stalin allowed to take place in an Orthodox church, he reputedly said, ‘This creature softened my heart of stone. She’s died and with her have died my last warm feelings for humanity.’

He ignored his son, who was brought up by the Svanidzes. Alexander Svanidze was, according to Svetlana Alliluyeva, Stalin’s daughter from his second marriage, a ‘splendid character’. But it didn’t save him.

Stalin ordered the arrest and execution of much of Kato’s family, including, in 1937, her brother, Alexander Svanidze. Alexander refused to confess to the trumped-up charges levelled against him. But as Svetlana described it, ‘he paid for his courage and dignity and restraint’ and was shot in February 1941. ‘Such aristocratic pride,’ scoffed Stalin. Svanidze’s wife and sister also fell victim.

Svanidze’s son, the oddly named Johnreed, after John Reed, the American author of Ten Days That Shook the World describing the October Revolution, disowned his father as an ‘enemy of the people’ but was himself later arrested and sent to the gulag. He was, in Svetlana’s words, ‘hurled from the summit of luxury to the very bottom… imprisoned with common criminals.’ He was eventually released but only after Stalin’s death in March 1953.

Rupert Colley

Learn more about Joseph Stalin in Stalin: History In An Hour, published by Harper Press and available in various digital formats.

See also articles on Stalin’s daughter, sons and second wife.

Rupert Colley’s novella, My Brother the Enemy, set during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, is now available.

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